ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureus

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureus

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HONEY ON Staphylococcus aureus

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The use of traditional and herbal medicine to treat infections was practiced since the origin of mankind and it was the only option to treatment before the air of antibiotics (Jawad; 2011). A variety of plants and their extracts have been used for the treatment requiring antimicrobial substances described in the ancient medicine is honey (Mandal and Mandal; 2011). Honey is a natural sweet substance obtained from the secretion of the living parts or excretion of plants which the honey bees (Apis mellifera) collect and store (Moore et al; 2001)

Though honey is used widely traditionally, its use in modern medicine is limited (Greenwood; 1993). Honey is used effectively as wound dressing including surgical wounds, burns and skin ulcers mainly because it speeds up the growth of new tissues and help to heal the wound, reduces pain and odour quickly (Lusby et al; 2003). The high osmotic nature and naturally low pH (3.2 - 4.5) (Kwakman and Zaat; 2012). Its ability to produce hydrogen peroxide which plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of honey (Kalaniova et al; 2011).

Studies have shown the brand spectrum in anti-bacterial effect of honey for several bacteria. Most human pathogen bacteria causing wound infection such as Staphylococcus aureus Pseudemonas aeruginosa  Escherichia  coli  and Streptococcus  phyogenes were found to be sensitive to honey (Visa vadia et al; 2006). Concentration of honey is used and the nature of the bacterial isolate (Kacaniova et al, 1992) are factors that affect the antibacterial activity of honey.

In addition, honey is hygroscopic, which means that it can draw moisture out of the environment and dehydrate bacteria and its high sugar content and low level pH can also prevent the micro-organisms from growth.

1.2     RESEARCH PROBLEM

Honey has been very effective for dressing of wounds, burns etc. The application of honey can promote the healing in infected wounds that do not respond to the conventional therapy i.e antibiotics and antiseptic resistant microbial species has lead to a re-evaluation of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies including honey (Dunford, 2000). Honey has been used from ancient times as a method of accelerating wound healing (Van dan et al; 2000) and the potential of honey to assist with wound healing has been demonstrated repeatedly (Molan, 2006).

Healing properties of honey can be ascribed to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound environment that promotes healing and has a high viscosity which helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection.

Honey is being used as an agent for the treatment of ulcers, bedsores and other skin infections resulting from burns and wounds (cooper, 2002).

The honey when applied topically, rapidly clears wounds infection to facilitate healing of deep surgical wounds with infection.

1.3     AIM OF THE STUDY

The study is carried out to determine the anti-bacterial potential of honey extracts on Staphylococcus  aureus.

1.4     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study is to determine and measure the zones of inhibition of honey extracts on Staphylococcus  aureus.

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                  

The significant of this study is to educate people on the properties and importance of honey that can be ascribed to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound environment that promotes healing and its  high viscosity which helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection.

The work will also provide useful information on how to identify pure honey and how to preserve it.

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to the use of the crude extract of honey for the antibacterial activities on micro-organism (Staphylococcus  aureus.)

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