BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOREHOLE SOURCES IN IKOT UDOTA, EKET

BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOREHOLE SOURCES IN IKOT UDOTA, EKET

BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF BOREHOLE SOURCES IN IKOT UDOTA, EKET

CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

According to Chapman (2000) and British Geological Survey (2001), ground water is easily the most important component of the hydrological cycle and an important source of portable water in Africa. It constitutes about two thirds of the freshwater resources of the world. Surface water is not evenly distributed or accessible to large sections of the global population (Diane, 2004; Mc Donald and Kay, 2001). Ground water provides a reasonably constant supply for domestic use, livestock family and irrigation, which is not likely to dry up under natural conditions thereby buffering the effects of rainfall variability across seasons (Hamil and Bell 2000, Callow et al. 2011). In many arid and semi-arid areas of Nigeria borehole water is a means of coping with water deficiencies in areas where rainfall is scare or highly seasonal and surface water is extremely limited (David, 2010).

Boreholes sampled varied from 30m-50m deep, but water is found in the levels between 20m. Dynamic water level of the level water drops to when the pump is operating due to draw down. Static water is the level water rises due to infiltration and capillary action (IAS, 2008). Ground water appears a vulnerable as surface water due to the water table being near the soil surface and layers topping the table being permeable and superficial sources of pollution (Boution, 2001; Sigh et al, 2012). There is practically no geological environment at or near the earth’s surface where pH will not support some form of organic life (Chapman, 2000). Pathogenic bacteria can survive long period under the ground and may have a life span of about four years (Hamil and Bell, 2000). Boreholes and wells locally distort the natural flow field and create a path that opens up an additional possibility of heat and mass transfer between rock formation / aquifers, surrounding and atmosphere (Berthold 2010; Akpovete, 2011). Indiscriminate waste disposal, poor agricultural practices, septic tank, pit-latrines and graves near boreholes or bore well construction, contribute to water contamination (Sunmido-wilhelmy and Gill 2000, Egwari and Aboaba, 2002, L, 2004 Mc Henry, 2011). These account for the presence of coliform bacteria in borehole water.

World population cannot be sustained without access to safe water (Brauntea, 2007). It is therefore important to conjunctly consider both water quality and quantity in its resources management (Xinghui et al. 2009). Borehole water becomes unsuitable for domestic use as result of contamination (Holmes, 2007). The aim of water quality management is usually to minimize the health standard and guide lines in water quality stem from the need to protect human health (Minh et al; 2011). Contamination of water has become an issue of serious environmental concern for some years now (Akpoveta et al; 2011, Silderberge, 2003).

Natural water contains many dissolved substances, contaminant such as bacteria, viruses, heavy metals, nitrates and salt which have polluted water supplies due to inadequate treatment and disposal of water from human and livestock, industrial discharge and over use of limited water resources (Singh and Mosley, 2003).

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommend that the minimum daily per capital water consumption to be liters per day. However many people manage with far less than 27 liters (Fraceys et al; 2001). This could be because approximately 70% of the renewable water resources which are unavailable for human use or under developed or unevenly distributed (Minh et al; 2011; Gleick, 2000). Drought, desertification and other forms of water scarcity are already estimated to affect as many as one third of the world’s population and is affecting consumption and migration patterns in many parts of the world. Ions, despite evidence that access to safe water is of a serious and inter-related concern (Calow et al; 2011). The fact that water is not easily accessible to large section of the global population defines the central management problem of borehole water resource (Mc Donald and Kay, 2000). Water resources policy should integrate equity, gender, efficiency and environmental consciousness (Weiwei, et al, 2009). Women can play several complimentary ways as health educators and supervisors of water programmeS. This will improve the protection of public from waterborne or related disease since women are the primary providers of water at household level in Nigeria (Nobumasa, 2006).

Identifying the factors that affect domestic water quality and consumption is very important in management of available water resources (Keshavarzi et al; 2006).

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Pollution of aquatic ecosystem is increasing steadily due to rapid population growth, waste discharge, industrial proliferation and urbanization. The rapid urbanization has caused population explosion in urban centers and the generation of wastes (both liquid and solid) have grown to commendable proportions. As a result, the wastes not properly disposed reaches the underground water sources contaminating the reservoirs which are in close proximity to these urban centers (Daine M. L. 2004). In Akwa Ibom State, this is not an exception and so many borehole water sources are undergoing deterioration due to intense anthropogenic activities, industrialization, eutrophication and waste discharge and these pose a severe health risk to human being. Also little or no available literature exist currently on the bacteriological status of borehole water sources in Ikot Udota. This dearth in information further necessitates this study.

1.3    AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY  

The objectives of this study is to assess the bacteriological quality of boreholes sources in Ikot Udota, Eket. The specific objectives will be to:

  1. Assess the level of fecal and total coliform in the borehole water sample.
  2. Compared the level of the parameters with WHO standards.
  3. Make appropriate recommendation.

 

1.4    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study goes a long way to provide information to Heritage Polytechnic Ikot Udota Village, Community, Hostel and Landlords on a bacteriological status of borehole water and its health implication.

1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The finding of this research was limited within (10) hostel with the community and bacterial screening will be carried out using pour plate techniques by with use of NA (Nutrient Agar). 

 

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