Impact of Training and Development on Employees’ Performance in public Organization
A case of oron Local Government council, Akwa Ibom State - Impact of Training and Development on Employees’ Performance in public Organization
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The ultimate aim of every training and development as one of the modern management approaches is to add value to human resource. Accordingly, Arnoff (1971) observed that the training and development foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower obsolescence which may be due to age, attitude or inability of a person to adapt himself to technological change. Training and development of the employees has direct contributions in high achievement of organizations which shows better performance.
Emerging literatures in the study have shown that the investment in human capital such as training in positively related to organization performance. That training is expected to reduce the rate of turnover in the workforce, and increase employees commitment which will result in longer employment duration, thereby enhancing job satisfaction.
Ripley, (2002) caution that training should not be regarded as a luxury to be undertaken when time and budget allows it or as a remedial measures to shocked up weak employees, but rather should form one of the organizational corporate objectives even as employees are increasingly demanding changes, choices, flexibilities and varieties in their works, thus suggesting that the delaying of organization and empowerment of individual employee, the future for both the organization and the individual lies not in the promotion to successively higher levels of management but rather in developing the value of employees as human capital. The value of human capital is enhanced by acquisition of higher performance potentials such as new tasks, functions and knowledge, skills ability and personal attributes (ASAPs)
Training development though primarily concerned with people, also has to do with technology that is the precise way organization does things. Training is however concerned with meeting between two inputs to organizational effectiveness that is people and technology.
Training has been a subject of debate with various definitions and functions given to it. Some see it as the ability of an organization to develop skills and knowledge to do both present and future jobs (Guest, 1997), others believed it to be an important employees motivator (Barret and o’ connet, 2011). As a vital component in organizational process of cultural change keep (1989) opined that training is also behavioral device that can be used to secure job satisfaction and team spirit among the employees. Training change uniformed employees to informed employees; unskilled or semi skilled workers into skilled employees who can do their assigned tasked in the way the organization want them done; workers who do things in their right way (Isiak, 2011). Thus, different authors have suggested that training and development of a firm’s human capital can provide a sustainable source of competitive advantage for organization. However, there may be some reasons why government and other organization invest hugely in training a development of employees in the tire of administration.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, many local Government secretariats have failed from achieving their initial objectives because adequate planning were not made by their management to guide them through their activities till the attainment of their objectives. The essence of every business organization is to provide customers with satisfactions and maximize profit, but employees’ performance within some organizations and discovered to fall below expectations which result into poor productivity and sometimes failure in business.
An employee in the new economy ought to be trained a fully motivated so as to be delighted and committed to his job, but is sadly noticed that some organization sees employees’ training as an expensive venture whose costs could have been channeled to other organizational projects in the organization. However, poorly planned and executed training programs in organization can result to high turnover in workforce, low job performance, loss of team spirit among staff. According to cole, (2002), it can be empirically summed up that well planned and adequately implemented training and development programs will boast employees proficiency and satisfaction, employees retention and greater commitment.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general aim of this study is to investigate the impact of employees training and development on organization performance. Specifically, this study aims at achieving the following objectives.
i. To assess the relationship existing between training and development and employees turnover.
ii. To evaluate the impact of employees training and development on job satisfaction.
iii. To determine the influence of employee training and development on teamwork spirit.
iv. To investigate the influence of training on employees commitment to duty.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions were addressed in the study:
i. Does training and development affect employees turnover.
ii. Could job satisfaction depend on employees training programme?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES.
The following Hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study
H0 1. Training development does not have any relationship with employees turnover.
H0 2. There is no significant impact of employees training and development on job performance.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that the result of this study will be of great importance to Local
Government stakeholders in Nigeria especially Oron Local Government Council
In various ways.
1. It will assist Oron local Government council to introduce modern schemes for training and development so as to be able to meet the challenges arising in the new economy and against changes in the future
2. The findings and recommendations of the study would serve as guide for public and private organizations when formulating new polices on employees training and development.
3. It will stimulate innovative and supportive work driven environment which will provide an opportunity for employees job satisfaction, self actualization and enhance commitment.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study is limited as it looks at the impact which training and development polices have played over the years on public organization performance using Oron Local Government secretariat as focal point. Accordingly, the analysis and conclusions will be based on this area.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research was limited mostly by attitude of most staff of the council who entertained fear and refused to give out necessary information that was highly decided by the researcher. This caused delay and loss of fund in this aspect.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ATTITUDE: This is a pre – disposition to work arising from concepts, feedings, beliefs, habit and motives. It may be positive or negative.
DEVELOPMENT: This is the process and advancement that takes place in an organization (Druker, 1974)
EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE: Defined as the outcome or contribution of employees to make them attain goals while performance may be defined as what organization has accomplished with respect to the process, results, relevance and success. Also, it is seen as the achievement of specific tasks measured against predetermined or identified standards accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Employees performance can be seen as improvement in production, ability to use new technology, highly motivated worker.
ORGANIZATION: Is a combination of people or individual effort working together in pursuit of certain concern purposes called organizational goals. (ONUOHA 1996)
PLANNING: Is the process of establishing goals and objectives and determining the resources and strategies needed to achieve them.
STAFF: This is employees of organization. Employee and staff are use inter-changeable to mean one and the same thing.
TRAINING: Training is a type of activity which is planned, systematic and it results in enhanced level of skill, knowledge and competences that are necessary to perform and assigned duty effectively. ( Gordon, 1992).