THE CONSTRUCTION OF A SOLAR OPERATED STREET LIGHT
Solar street lights are raised light sources which are powered by photovoltaic panel generally mounted on the lighting structure or integrated in the pole itself. The photovoltaic panels charge a rechargeable battery, which powers a LED lamp during the night. The solar panel will provide electricity to charge the battery during the day time. The battery’s charging is controlled by a charge controller. The operation of the LED bulb is controlled by using a sensor.
Basically, this project focused on the design and construction of a solar operated automatic streetlight. This is a commercial quality that can easily illuminate the streets and other areas of choice giving the potential of many years of trustworthy use with a minimum of maintenance required. The four major components needed to build, construct a solar powered street light are: solar panel, high efficiency D.C temperature lamp, Charge controller and a battery. To achieve the automatic operation of the street light a photo cell or a timer which senses the period of darkness and lightness, is used to trigger.
The type of battery employed here is a maintenance free one, which is capable of supplying few days of backup power in case of bad weather or charge failure. Als0 the lamp used in this project work is a D.C operated lamp.
1.1 PURPOSE OF STUDY
This project is carried out so as to provide an alternative means of generating electricity through sunlight for lighting purpose. Also, the effective utilization of natural resources (sunlight) is ensured by the design of this project. The components required in carrying out this project which are solar panel, battery charge controller, bulb are efficient enough to yield the desired result without the use of power converter.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim and objectives of this project are:
- To power up a street lighting system through solar energy
- To project the solar battery from quick deterioration as a result of continuous day and night working.
- To control a solar powered street light automatically
- To utilize the naturally endowed resource (sun)
1.3 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
The significance of the design and construction of solar operated Automatic street light cannot be over emphasized in the sense that it is financially viable particularly in areas where the cost of providing a main supply is prohibitive. It has the capability of illuminating large surface area of land due to high efficiency of the lamb used. Also, it does not require human intervention to control its operation and finally, power outages have no impact whatsoever on it.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project design is centered on solar energy as fast growing technology for street lighting with the use of a solar module. The automatic control process of the light can be achieved by a photo cell or a timer which eliminates human intervention for manual switching or control.
Every project’s have its limitation. The major limitation of this project is that sunlight used to generate the electricity is not readily available especially during rainy season. As a result, the street light requires the need for large battery to use in order to provide at least three days of stand by operation during cloudy weather without discharging the battery below its safe operating limit.
1.6. DEFINITION OF TERMS
A solar panel is basically a module that converts light energy (photons) from the sum to generate electricity in direct current (DC)
A device that convert chemical energy to electrical energy (DC) batteries are used to store the electricity generated by the solar panel during the day
They are device that regulates battery voltage since the outputs from solar panel are variable.
A LED lamp is a light emitting diode (LED) assemble into a lamb or light bulb.
A configuration of photovoltaic cells laminated between a clear super saturate (glazing) and an encapsulating substrate
One or more panels wired together from a specific voltage and fastened to a mounting structure
Thin square discs or firms of semi- conductor material that generate voltage and current when exposed to sunlight